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Risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes retained from childhood to adulthood predict adult outcomes: the Princeton LRC Follow-up Study

John A Morrison1, Charles J Glueck23*, Jessica G Woo1 and Ping Wang2

Author Affiliations

1 From the Division of Cardiology, Children’s Hospital of Cincinnati, 3333 Burnet Avenue, 45229, Cincinnati, USA

2 From the Cholesterol and Metabolism Center, Jewish Hospital of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, USA

3 Cholesterol Center, UC Health Business Center, 3200 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA

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International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology 2012, 2012:6  doi:10.1186/1687-9856-2012-6

Published: 16 April 2012

Abstract

Background

Pediatric risk factors predict adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM), but whether they predict events independently of adult risk factors is not fully known.

Objective

Assess whether risk factors for CVD and T2DM retained from childhood to adulthood predict CVD and T2DM in young adulthood.

Study design

770 schoolchildren, ages 5–20 (mean age 12), 26-yr prospective follow-up. We categorized childhood and adult risk factors and 26-year changes (triglycerides [TG], LDL cholesterol, BMI, blood pressure [BP] and glucose ≥, and HDL cholesterol < pediatric and young adult cutoffs). These risk factors and race, cigarette smoking, and family history of CVD and T2DM were assessed as predictors of CVD and T2DM at mean age 38.

Results

Children who had high TG and retained high TG as adults had increased CVD events as adults (p = .0005). Children who had normal BMI and retained normal BMI as adults had reduced CVD events as adults (p = .02). Children who had high BP or high TG and retained these as adults had increased T2DM as adults (p = .0006, p = .003).

Conclusions

Risk factors for CVD and T2DM retained from childhood to adulthood predict CVD and T2DM in young adulthood and support universal childhood screening.

Keywords:
Risk factors; Cardiovascular disease; Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Obesity; High blood pressure; Tracking